Authored by , Reviewed by Dr Laurence Knott on | Certified by The Information Standard

Bedbugs are very small insects that can live in furniture, clothing and bedding. They tend to bite at night. They are becoming more common. Although the bedbug bites do not cause any diseases they can be irritating.

There are two types of bedbug. The most common type of bedbug is the Cimex lectularius, also known as the common bedbug. Bedbugs feed on blood from humans and other animals.

The common bedbugs are very small (around 2-5 mm long) oval insects. They do not have wings. They are red/brown in colour and are usually flat. However, they become more rounded and their colour changes to red/purple after they have had some blood.

Bed Bug, CDC/Harvard University via,_Cimex_lectularius.jpg

They can live in many different places in your home. For example, the bed mattresses, bed frames, within plug sockets, in clothing or in soft furnishings. They can even live behind picture frames. They can move to different rooms, usually on clothing or furniture. They live in both clean and dirty environments. However, having high standards of hygiene and housekeeping can help to ensure that the presence of bedbugs is revealed at an early stage.

Bedbugs are not usually seen in the daytime. They come out at night when they are attracted by the warmth of sleeping bodies and also the carbon dioxide in breath.

The adults can live for up to 18 months. They breed by laying eggs which hatch after around 10-20 days and take between 9-18 weeks to become adults. Females can lay around 300 eggs in their lifetime. Bedbugs need blood to develop but can stay alive for as long as a year without feeding.

Bedbugs seem to be becoming more common. It is thought that increases in international travel and immigration have contributed to an increase in bedbugs. In addition, there has been more resistance to some of the pesticides used in the past to kill bedbugs.

The following may indicate that you have bedbugs in your home:

  • Developing itchy bites.
  • You may be able to see the bedbugs if you look for them. They are tiny but are visible to the naked eye.
  • Seeing spots of blood on bedding.
  • Noticing brown spots on bedding, from their excrement.
  • A sweet almond smell may be noticeable if there are many bedbugs around.

There are different degrees of infestation with bedbugs. This can vary from light, causing one or two bites a week, through to heavy infestations where more than 50 bites per night occur.

Although bedbugs have not been proven actually to cause any diseases, they are usually a nuisance. When you are sleeping they bite you to obtain your blood. As they bite they inject a substance which numbs the skin so you are not usually aware of the bite. They feed on your skin for 2-10 minutes each time.

These bites can be very itchy and irritating. The bites can vary from being very small red marks on your skin to larger red areas with some swelling around. Three to four bites forming a line or a curve on your body are very suggestive of bedbug bites. The bites tend to be in areas which are exposed as you are sleeping - for example, your face or neck or arms.

Sometimes the bites can become infected. The area around where you have been bitten may swell and become sore and reddened.

Having bedbugs can keep you from getting a good night's sleep, which, over time, can be bad for your health.

Bedbug Bites, Andy Brookes via

The bites usually improve without any treatment. If they are itchy, you can use a mild steroid cream such as hydrocortisone cream. You can obtain this over the counter from a pharmacy or on prescription. If your bites are particularly bothersome - for example, very itchy and keeping you awake at night - then antihistamines may be beneficial. Antihistamine tablets can also either be bought from the chemist or obtained from your GP.

If your bites become infected then your doctor will give you some antibiotic cream or tablets to clear up the infection. See your doctor if the redness around the bites is spreading or becoming very painful.

Any affected bedding or clothes should be washed in a hot wash (at 60°C). Tumble drying of affected linen or more delicate items has been shown to be effective. The tumble drier must be set to a hot temperature for at least half an hour. Also, freezing any affected materials has been shown to decontaminate infested clothing. Items have to be frozen for at least one week.

If bites occur when you are on holiday then you should carefully inspect any hotel rooms for signs of bedbugs. It may be worth inspecting the beds before you unpack. If you are in a room with bedbugs, they can travel home with you on your clothing or luggage.

If you find your home has bedbugs, always call a pest control expert. Your local pest control team should also be able to help to eradicate them by using an insecticide which is usually sprayed on and around the affected areas of your house. They usually use a combination of insecticides. This is usually very effective. In some cases, re-treatment at a later date is required. It is not safe to use these insecticides unless you are a trained professional.

Try contacting your local council who often have advice about pest control services. You can get information about bedbugs, and finding a pest control expert from the British Pest Control Association (see below). The has produced some comprehensive information about bedbugs.

Further reading and references

  • ; Bed bug infestation. BMJ. 2013 Jan 22346:f138. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f138.

  • ; Practical solutions for treating laundry infested with Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). J Econ Entomol. 2010 Feb103(1):136-9.

  • ; Bed bugs, University of Kentucky Entomology Department, May 2012

  • ; Bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012 Jan25(1):164-92. doi: 10.1128/​CMR.05015-11.

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